TAGUIG CITY COMPREHENSIVE LAND USE
& ZONING PLAN
PHYSICAL & SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILE
THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
Geography, Location and Area
The city of Taguig is positioned at approximately 14 latitude and 120 longitude on the southern part of Metro Manila along the northeastern coast of Laguna de Bay. It is bounded by Laguna de Bay in the East; Pateros, Pasig and Taytay in the north; Makati and Pasay in the west; Parañaque in the southwest; and Muntinlupa in the south. The city belongs to the Laguna de Bay watershed region otherwise known as the Laguna de Bay Basin as defined by Section 2, E. O. 927 (1983) along with 108 municipalities and cities of Metro Manila and the provinces of Rizal, Quezon, Batangas, Cavite and Quezon.
It has a total area of 4,538.2 hectares ( 45.382 sq. km. ) as per approved Cadastral Survey Mcdam 500 D by the NCR Land Management Bureau indicating a 1995 average density of 8,403 persons per sq. km. It covers 18 barangays including some 1,626.2 hectares in what used to be he Fort Bonifacio Military Reservation.
Area Distribution of Taguig
2. Bagong Tanyag
3. Upper Bicutan
4. Lower Bicutan
5. Maharlika Village
6. Western Bicutan
7. Signal Village
13. Sta. Ana
Fort Bonifacio Military Reservation
SOURCE : City Development Planning Office
Taguig consists of 2 terrain units; a western undulating section and an eastern alluvial portion, which extends into the Laguna de Bay. The undulating to gently sloping terrain is underlain by a gently dipping sequence of pyroclastic rocks essentially made up of tuffs, tuffaceous sandstones and conglomerates belonging to the Guadalupe formation. This formation is represented by massive to thickly bedded lithic tuff and tuffaceous sandstone as revealed by grading operations along the Fort Bonifacio area.
Based on the Geologic Map of Taguig , it has two major geologic formations namely:
Quaternary Alluvial (QA1) which is comprised of detrital deposits mostly silt, sand and gravel; and
Guadalupe formation (GF) of which the upper member (Diliman Tuff) is thin to medium bedded, fine-grained, vitric tuffs and welded volcanic breccias with subordinate amounts of tuffaceous, fine to medium grained sandstone.
Members of the Pleistocene Guadalupe Formation predominantly underlie the terrain where Taguig lies. These are mainly Alat Conglomerate and Diliman Tuff. Early Pleistocene to late Pleistocene conglomerate, silty mudstone and tuffaceous sandstone comprise the lower member while late pleistocene well-bedded tuff units make up the upper member. The constituents of the Diliman Tuff were most likely derived from a volcano on the central lobe of Laguna de Bay to the south based on its aerial distribution pattern and lithological similarity with those in the northern vicinity of the central lobe of Laguna de Bay. On the other hand, Quaternary alluvial deposits of the Marikina Alluvial plain and Pasig River Delta plain cover western areas of the municipality. The presence of the marine sediments suggest that the quaternary alluvium was probably deposited after uplift of the Guadalupe formation, possibly as a result of movements along the Marikina Valley Fault System (MVFS) (Punongbayan,1996)
As illustrated by Figure 2.4, there are five main types of soils found in Taguig. These are Bay Clay Loam, Guadalupe Clay, Marikina Clay Loam, Quinqua Fine Sandy Loam and the Unmodified Soil found in Fort Bonifacio and barangays Western Bicutan, Maharlika and Ligid Tipas. Bay Clay Loam is dark brown in color and has fine granules which is friable when dry, but very sticky when wet. This particular soil type is found in barangays Ibayo-Tipas and Napindan. The Guadalupe clay, on the other hand, is nearly black in color and coarse in texture. It is granular to coddy when dry, and very fine sticky when wet and found in the barangays of Bambang, Upper and Lower Bicutan, Hagonoy, Ususan and Wawa. The Marikina Clay Loam, also brown and friable, is found in Barangays Calzada, Sta. Ana and Tuktukan. Moreover, Quinqua fine sandy loam underlies barangays Bagumbayn and Bagong Tanyag.
Based on the Physiography Map of Taguig, extensive portion of Taguig covering the former Military Camp of Fort Bonifacio is composed of undulating low graded tuff. On the other hand, an area bordered by Pateros, Pasig and Laguna de Bay is made of broad alluvial deposits, while the smallest southwestern portion towards Muntinlupa is mainly composed of minor alluvial deposits.
About sixty-five percent of the land in Taguig is level while the rest are rolling to hilly. It is characterized by coastal plains and hilly areas extending in the north-south direction along the Manila Bay. Surface elevation ranges from 0-10 meters above the mean sea level on the coastal plains and 20-70 meters on the hills.
As per the Slope Map of Taguig, the following is the indicated slope distribution.
Level to nearly level
Gently sloping to gently undulating
Undulating to gently rolling
Gently rolling to rolling
SOURCE of raw data : BSWM
As per Metro Manila Land Resource Evaluation Project by BSWM, Taguig has the following land and soil characteristics :
Freshwater Marshes (Alluvial Landscape)
Fresh water marshes of Taguig are found on its southwstern lake coast. The soil is relatively fine loamy (silty clay loam, sandy loam to loamy sand), poorly to very poorly drained and with a general vegetation of grasses, water hyacinths and reeds. However, during the dry season when water recedes, some areas are also devoted to agricultural use. This land system has an average elevation of 4 meters with a water table depth of 60 cm. It is severely flooded and has a soil classification of Typic Tropaquept.
Broad Alluvial Plain (Alluvial Landscape)
This represents the vast expanse of contiguous, nearly level to gently undulating recent floodplains, levees and backswamp having slope of 0-2% particular among the central
barangays of the city. The area where Taguig lies has a land facet characterized by fine to very fine clayey somewhat poorly drained. Its soil texture is primarily clay and has effective depth of more than 150 cm. Soil drainage is somewhat poor with an inherent fertility ranging from high to very high. Average elevation is 11 meters with water table depth of 120 cm. Soil classification is Aeric Tropaquept.
Minor Alluvial Plain and Isolated Inland Valley (Alluvial Landscape)
This land system is dominant along coastal zones of Laguna Lake. They are usually seen along the deltas of rivers that drain into the Lake. The soil is relatively fine loam (silty clay loam, sandy loam to loamy sand), poorly to very poorly drained. It has average elevation of 25 meters, slightly eroded, but well drained.
Undulating Low Degraded Tuffaceous Plateau (Foothill Landscape)
It is composed of slightly elevated tuffaceous plateau with very shallow soils. It extends from Muntinlupa in the south, towards Quezon City in the north and Valenzuela in the northwest. It covers the eastern part of the city including the Fort Bonifacio Military Reservation Area. Soil is about 10 to 15 cm. deep; very dark grayish brown, silty clay with pale brown partially weathered volcanic tuff usually encountered below 10-20% rolling sideslopes and isolated low hills.
Taguig has two major rivers that feed Laguna de Bay, namely, the Taguig River and the Napindan Channel which is linked to the eastern portion of the Pasig River itself. The Napindan River normally flows from Laguna de Bay to the Pasig River, but can also flow in the opposite direction, depending on the river itself, the water table in the lake, the tidal stage in Manila Bay, and the annual evaporatin from the lake. Minor rivers include: Bagumbayan River, Mauling Creek/Tabacuhan Creek, Hagonoy River, Tipas River/Labasan River and Santa Ana River. These rivers are fed by 23 other tributaries namely: Daang Paa Creek, Bambang na Malaki, Sukol Creek/Daang Manunuso, Mabato Creek, Katwiran Creek, Daang Kalabaw Creek, Labasan Creek, Panday Creek, Sapa ni Beho, Palingon Creek, Bambang na Putol, Tipas River, Pagadling Creek, Napindan River, Lumang Ilog Creek, Ilog Clemencia, Daang Banca Creek, Sapang Ususan, Sapang Malaki, Hagonoy Creek, Maricaban Creek, Bambang ni Peles, and Daang Kalabaw Creek.
As per data from Laguna Lake Development Authority (LLDA), the lake has a totalk area of 90,000 hectares with an average depth of 2.8 m. Aquaculture covers around 15,000 hectares, 10,000 for fishpens and 5,000 for fish cages.
Taguig is situated within a groundwater basin containing several connected and interrelated aquifers, composed of tuffaceous sandstone and conglomerates belonging to the Guadalupe Formation. The rocks as observed from Fort Bonifacio Global City conform from sedimentary facets of the Guadalupe formation and generally dip gently to its western portion. Its thickness is approximately 1,300 to 1,200 meters.
Almost 2000 wells have been drilled in the aquifers of the Guadalupe Formation for the commercial and residential users some of which go as deep as 300 meters. In 1990, total pumpage reached 339.6 million cubic meters. There are already 124 wells that have been drilled south of Fort Bonifacio yielding 24.25 million cubic meters of water that supply 7% of the total population of Metro Manila.
Based on a feasibilty study for the bulk water supply conducted through MWSS in 1996, locations of well fields within Taguig are indicated in figure 2.8.
A water quality monitoring conducted in January 1999 by Seastems, Inc. for the Fort Bonifacio Global City indicated very high coliform levels of 24,000 MPN/100 ml in the two stations observed. The values obtained exceeded the DENR standards of 5,000 MPN/100 ml for class C waters. The high figures is an indication of wastewater intrusion coming from domestic sources discharging sewerage. The table below show the details of the sampling results.
DENR Std. For Class C Waters
Oil and Grease (mg/L)
Total Phosphate (mg/L)
Total Suspended Solids (mg/L)
Coliform (MPN/100 ml)
The pH value of 7.2 in station 1 is still within the range of 6.5 to 8.5. Moreover, oil and grease were not detected in both stations. However, the two stations yielded BOD concentrations of 10.4 mg/L and 9.5mg/L, both exceeding DENR limits.
From the nearest PAGASA atation at NAIA, climatological data from 1950-1995 were obtained.
The climate of Taguig is classified as Type 1 under the Corona’s classification used by Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) depending on rainfall pattern. It is characterized by two pronounced seasons: rainy season from May to October and dry season from January to April, rainfall drops to 10-30 mm/month. In general, Metro Manila is directly influenced by an average of 2 to 3 tropical cyclones per year.
The PAGASA station recorded an annual rainfall amount of 1,149.2 with a total of 113 rainy days between the years 1961-1995. The rainy months of May – October indicated monthly rainy days of 1 – 20 of which the month of July recorded the highest at 20. The highest amount of rainfall for the period 1949-1995 was 427.4 mm recorded in February 1, 1962.
TO BE CONTINUED……..
HISTORY and LANDMARKS
TAGUIG, RICH IN HERITAGE:
A BRIEF HISTORY
TAGUIG, a municipality of Metropolitan Manila, is situated at the northwestern shore of the picturesque Laguna de Bay, at the upper mouth of the legendary Pasig River also known as the Napindan Channel through which Laguna drains its floodwaters.
It is bounded on the North by the town of Pateros and City of Pasig of Metropolitan Manila; on the East by the town of Taytay of the province of Rizal and the Laguna Lake, on the South by the Laguna Lake and the City of Muntilnlupa of Metropolitan Manila; and on the West by the cities of Parañaque, Makati, Pasay City and all of Metropolitan Manila.
It consists of 44,538.20 hectares (45.38 square kilometers) as shown by the recent cadastral survey Mcdam 594 D by the Bureau of Lands National capital Region. Except for the hilly portion on the western and southern ends, Taguig is a vast agricultural plain with about seven and a half (71/2) kilometer shoreline along the Laguna Lake.
In the 2000 Census of Population conducted, Taguig was shown to have a total population of 467,375 and with 102,723 households, distributed in the eighteen Barangays that comprise the municipality.
It has fast become urbanized from the original rural set-up. The increase in industries, development and socio-economic growth during the last two decades have raised Taguig to the level of a FIRST CLASS-A CITY.
The topography of the land is about 65% levels, the rest rolling or hilly. Being an inland town, it is accessible by land transportation from the other towns bordering the Laguna Lake. It is fifteen (15) kilometers east of the City of Manila.
It has two (2) major rivers that feed the Laguna Lake, namely:
Napindan Channel connected to a portion of Pasig River itself.
Five (5) minor rivers with tributaries:
Mauling Creek/Tabacuhan Creek
Tipas River/Labasan River
Sta. Ana River
Tributaries are as follows:
Daang Paa Creek 13. Bambang ni Chapa
Bambang na Malaki 14. Ilog Clemencia
Sukol Creek 15. Daang Banca Creek
Mabato Creek 16. Daaang Kalabaw Creek (Bambang)
Katuwiran Creek 17. Sapang Ususan
Daang Kalabaw Creek (Ibayo-Tipas) 18. Maricaban Creek
Panday Creek 19. Bambang ni Peles
Sapa ni Beho 20. Daang Kalabaw Creek (Hagonoy)
Bambang na Putol
Lumang Ilog Creek
CLIMATE AND WEATHER
The Climate is characterized by two types of season:
Dry season from November to April
Wet season from May to October
Rainfall is less evenly distributed. Maximum rainfall usually occurs from June to September. The average annual rainfall is 2,000 millimeters with a peak of 400 mm. In August and a low of 4 mm. In March. Lowest temperature usually occurs during the month of January. Predominant wind direction is south westerly from October to April, north easterly from June to September and predominantly northerly during the month of may. The average relative humidity is 81%.
WHAT’S IN A NAME?
The early inhabitants of Taguig were farmers and fishermen. They became popularly known among neighboring villages as skilled “palay” threshers or “TAGA-GIIK”, so that the place where they live came to be known as “TAGIIK”. Then, Spaniards came and ruled over the place. They found difficulty in pronouncing “TAGIIK” and so they named the place “TAGUIIG”, and later “TAGUIG” that is today the official name of the city.
Transmitted by word of mouth from generations to generations the name given by Filipinos to significant events and characteristics of the places had been the sources of the names given to the thirteen original barrios that comprise Taguig.
Believed to be the first settlement by the side of the Taguig river, which divide Taguig, is barrio STA. ANA which was so named in honor of the town’s patron saint.
Early Tagalogs call the source of river upstream as “wawa”, the banks of rivers as “bambang”, the place were people wash clothes as “tuktukan’, and the area where the river drain or slide as “ususan”. And so when settlements grow in the areas along the Taguig River, the inhabitants called their barrios as WAWA, BAMBANG, TUKTUKAN and USUSAN.
Almost parallel to the Taguig River at about two kilometers to the northeast is the Tipas River which had a loop at the middle of it’s length. This is joined by the Sta. Ana River at the said loop. People following the course of the loop, detour or in Tagalog “tumitipas” or “lumiligid”. Early settlers were said to be from Pasig who escaped from the harsh policy of their ruler. The settlement was then called TIPAS. Tagalog also call the other side of a river as “ibayo’. When a community grew at the other side of Tipas, they called the settlement or barrio as IBAYO-TIPAS.
There was a time the faithful of Tipas were disgruntled over the administration of an assigned priest of Taguig. They preferred to be under Pasig. The parochial jurisdiction over Tipas had to be settled through the sound of the bells which rang simultaneously from the churches of Pasig and Taguig. The inhabitants from a portion of Tipas first heard the sound of the bell from taguig and turned their heads. To Tagalogs to turn one’s head is “lumilingon”. The place where they lived was later called PALINGON. A road to Tagalog is “Calzada”. When the road linking Tipas to Sta. Ana became populated, they named the barrio CALZADA.
To Tagalogs, being pierced through is “napindang”. At the northeastern tip of Taguig, the periodical action of the Laguna Lake Floods, created a channel piercing through the land area. The barrio, as channel piercing through the land area. The barrio, as well as the channel, were later called NAPINDAN.
In olden days a particular kind of plant called “hagunoy” aabound in area south of Wawa. The place later came to be known as HAGUNOY.
The Tagalog term of digging for treasure is “bikot”. South of barrio Hagunoy was a wooded area known to be the hiding place of robbers and pirates. When the area was cleared of robbers and pirates it was rumored that there were buried treasures left in the area. Many inhabitants started to dig for treasures. The place came to known as BICUTAN.
To Tagalogs, new is “bago” and the settlement was established at the unpopulated southern portion of Taguig, the same was called BAGUMBAYAN.
PRE SPANISH PERIOD
Taguig has its beginning in the history of every village and barrio in the remote pre-historic past as reconstructed for us by geologists, archeologists and historians. People of varied cultures and racial types, came to Philippines in migratory waves from twenty five or thirty years ago unto the 14th century.
The first to come were the primitive men, as proven by unearthed stone implements and fossil remains. The Pygmies, forebears of the Aetas, came next, crossing land links from the Asian mainland to the Philippines. Choosing the valleys where they could engage in agriculture, the Indonesians followed the Proto-Malays. The last group of people to settle in the Rizal area were called the Porcelain Age Folks. They struggled against one another for supremacy and possession of rich land. Those of lower cultures were driven to the mountains. The Malays prove to be the dominant race.
Tagalog authorities claim, the name Tagalog may mean “taga-ilog” which is a term indicative of the habitation of these people. It is, therefore, probable that the first homes of the Tagalogs were the river areas and banks. The rivers and the Laguna Lake offered the pioneer of Taguig, fresh water for drinking ablutions and irrigation; protection against attack of enemies; and easy means of travel by bancas or native boats. Thus, along the Taguig River, Tipas River and the Napindan Channel, Malay settlement sprang up and grew into populous barrios, a fact which the Spanish conquistadors found when they came during the last quarter of the 16th century.
Taguig was already a thriving community long before the Spaniards came. It was once part of the Kingdom of Tondo ruled by Rajah Soliman. During the early Spanish colonization, Taguig was given as an encomienda to one Captain Vergara, while the Augustinian Order provided religious instructions.
THE FOUNDATION DAY
On April 25, 1587 it was made a “pueblo” of the province of Manila. During the uprising led by Magat Salamat (1587-1588), Juan Basi, who was the town chieftain fought against the Spaniards, and gave his life along with Agustin Legaspi, a nephew of Lakandula, and son-in law of the Sultan of Borneo, and the chieftain of Tondo, Pandacan, Kandaba, Navotas and Polo. When it became a pueblo, it was ruled by a curate and a governadorcillo. It had a tribunal, a primary school and a church served by a regular priest whose missionary work extended to as far as the town of Angono. It produced much rice, but little sugar cane. Besides farming, the men lived by fishing. The women wove cotton cloth and “sawali” from bamboo strips. Since boats from the lake towns passed by on the way to manila, the town carried active commerce in agriculture and manufactured products.
The “gobernadorcillo”, popularly called “capitan” was assisted by some minor officials. At the beginning, the gobernadorcillo was elected annually by the married natives of the locality, subject, however to the final approval of the superior government in Manila. He acted as judge in civil cases where small sums were involved He was aided by constables called “vilangos”, a notary, and the “cabeza de barangay”.
Pursuant to the “Reales Ordenanzas Formados Por El Superior Gobierno Y Real Acuerdo” by then Governor Raon in 1768, and in accordance with the Municipal Reform Law of 1847, improvements in the municipal government including changes in the manner of electing the gobernadorcillo were effected: a candidate must be able to read and write Spanish. Instead of being elected by all married natives, he was elected by a board of electors composed of retiring “gobernadorcillos” and twelve “cabezas de barangay” and chosen in order of seniority. Actually, they were chosen by plurarity vote through the secret ballot, and their names, together with some recommendations of the “alcalde mayor” or gobernador and often of the friar, were forwarded to the central government in Manila, where the man for the position would finally be singled out.
In conformity with the election law of 1847, also elected to assist the gobernadorcillo, were the “teniente mayor” who was actually the vice alcalde; “juez de sementera” who handled real property cases; “juez de policia” who handled criminal cases; aand “juez de ganados” who handled cases on large cattles.
No complete record can be found of those who served as head of the town previous to 1856. The term of office of the Gobernadorcillo or Capitan Municipal was for one year until 1862 to 1897 is as follows:
1859- Juan B. Labao
1860- Domingo Guevarra
1861- Venancio Sandoval
1862- Leonardo Labao
1895-1897 Jose Natividad
SHORTLIVED PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC
Andres Bonifacio during his youth often visited his relatives in Sta. Ana, especially during the town fiestas of Taguig. When he founded the Katipunan, it was easy for him to gain followers from Taguig.
Among those who held leadership in the movement were: Domingo Motas Cruz, who had risen to the rank of “Marsical de Ocampo” until his death in the Battle of Zapote; “Commandantes” Pablo E. santos, Pantaleon Roldan, Felipe Rayos del Sol, Baltazar Capistrano, Leocadio T. Mariano, “Capitanes” Honorio Musni, Lino Labao, Marcelo de la Paz, Simplicio Tolentino, Juan Cruz, Gregorio Guerero, “Tenientes” Gregorio Natividad, Fortunato Dinguinbayan, Dionisio Capistrano, Higino Perez, Canuto Pascual, Juan Natividad, Esteban Estacio and many others.
When shortlived Philippine Independence was proclaimed on June 12, 1898, Taguig was administered by the following:
Baltazar Capistrano : “Pangulo ng Bayan”
Jacinto Manalo : “Kalihim”
Pablo B. Santos : “Ingat-Yaman”
Baltazar landrito : “Puno ng Pulisya”
Pangulo ng Nayon:
Juan Cruz - Bagumbayan
Liberato Mariano – Bicutan
Claro Cuevas – Hagonoy
Marcelo Manuel – Wawa
Isabelo Bautista – Bambang
Antonio Cruz – Sta Ana
Pantelon Roldan – Tuktukan
Silvestre Buenaventura – Ususan
Hermogenes San Juan – Calzada
Mateo San Pedro - Palingon
Leocadio T. Mariano – Tipas
Pedro Esguerra – Napindan.
The “Pangulo ng Nayon” acted as “Councilor” and were assisted by the “Tiniente” appointed by him in his barrio.
Although the Treaty of Paris of December 10, 1898 concluded the Spanish-American War, it never the less sanctioned the American occupation of the Philippines and transfer of sovereignty from the Spain to the United States. The agreement between President Emilio Aguinaldo and the U.S. authorities failed and so the Filipinos fought against the American Forces. The “Revolucionaries” of Taguig joined the command of Gen. Pio del Pilar. After the San Juan Bridge incident on February 4, 1899, the Americans expanded their occupation of Manila to the neighboring towns, which fell one after another due to their superior arms.
It was recorded that on February 16, 1899, the Filipino forces dislodged Americans positioned in the hills of Taguig (now a portion of Ft. Bonifacio) and Pateros causing many casualties among Americans. Actions continued and positions changed hand from then on. On May 15, the tide turned in favor of the Americans so that 500 “Revolucionaries” were captured and taken prisoners. Taguig fell finally to a cotigent of the First Washington volunteer Infantry led by Col. Wholley on March 16, 1899. In its defense, seventy five revolucionaries died.
On March 29, 1900 at the start of American reign, Taguig was established as an independent municipality by virtue of General Order No. 40. On June 14, 1901, Taguig was made a part of the Province of Rizal by virtue of Act. 137 of the Philippine Commission which was a consolidation of a portion of the Province of Manila and the Province of Morong. Taguig then was classified as a fourth class municipality with 6, 397 populace. The name Rizal was a suggestion of Dr. Trinidad H. Pardo de Tevera at the historic meeting held at the Pasig Catholic Church on June 5, 1901 in the presence of the Second Philippine Commission and presided over by its President/Chairman, William Howard Taft.
By virtue of Act. No. 942 of the Philippine Commission, Taguig was joined with Pateros and Muntinlupa on October 12, 1903 with seat of government at Pateros. About one and a half month later, Muntinlupa was segregated from Taguig and made a part of Biñan, Laguna by virtue of Act. No. 1008 dated November 25, 1903, but was however, returned as part again of Taguig on March 22, 1905 by Virtue of Act. No. 1308 of the Philippine commission with seat of government at Taguig.
Pateros was eventually separated from Taguig and both became independent municipalities of Rizal Province on June 01, 1908 by virtue of Executive Order No. 20, dated February 20, 1908 upon petition of the residents of Pateros and recommendation of the Provincial Board of the Province of Rizal. Muntinlupa was separated from Taguig and became an independent municipality of Rizal Province on January 1, 1918 by virtue of Executive Order No. 108, dated December 19, 1917. From 1903 to 1917 when Pateros and Muntinlupa were joined with Taguig, those elected into office as President Municipal were all residents of Taguig.
Except for one Vice-Presidente who succeeded in his Presidente Municipal for the unexpired term, the following administered the municipality of Taguig during the American regime:
(1901-1903) – Feliciano Pagkalinawan
(1904-1905), (1906-1907), (1908-1909) (1910) – Felipe Rayos del Sol
(1911 Oct..15, 1912) – Braullio Pagkalinawan
(1912-1916) – Graciano Juta
(1916-1919), (1919-1922), (1922-1925) – Jose Pagtakhan
(1925-1928), (1928-1931) – Eusebio Santos
(1931-1934) – Cleto Mastrili.
The first Municipal Council of Taguig under the American regime was composed of the following:
Feliciano Pagkalinawan – President
Pantaleon Franco – Vice-President
Antonio Cruz - Consejales
Damaso Dionisio - Consejales
Juan Cuevas - Consejales
Sivestre Buenaventura - Consejales
Victoriano Estacio - Consejales
Tomas Monsod - Consejales
Nicolas Mozo - Consejales
BernabeSta. Teresa – Secretario
Elected as Vice-President with Feliciano Pagkalinawan in 1903 was Pantelon Franco and the “Consejales” were: Basilio Guerrero, Antonio Cruz, Tomas San Pedro, Juan Cuevas, Simeon San Juan, Silvestre Buenaventura and Andres Pagkalinawan; Bernie Sta. Teresa, secretario.
Those elected with Felipe Rayos del Sol during his first term (1904-1905) were: Francisco de Borja, Vice-President, while as Consejales were: Agapito sulit, Nicasio Manalo, Pedro Mendiola, Simeon San Juan, Antonio Cruz, Pablo B. Santos, Jose de Leon, Hipolito Francisco and Juan Cuevas.
Those who served with Felipe Rayos del Sol during his third term (1908-1909) were: Lorenzo Rosales, Vice-President; M
ariano Garcia, Antonio Cruz, Jose de Leon, Simplicio Manalo, Hipolito Francisco, Pantaleon de Borja, Fortunato D. del Sol, Braullio Pagkalinawan, Diego Cuevas, Juan Mozo, Consejales; Luis Sta. Ana, Secretario. When Pateros was separated from taguig on June 01, 1908, Jose de Leon and Simplicio Manalo both residents of Pateros were re-assigned to their home town.
Those who were elected with Felipe Rayos del Sol on his fourth term 91910-1912) were: Braiullio Pagkalinawan, Vice-Presidente, Marcelino Elias, Mariano Baltazar, Nicolas Mozo, Mariano Reyes, Antonio Cruz, Hermogenes SanJuan, Uldorico Yumping, Diego Cuevas, Cayetano Victoria, Consejales. After serving for one year (1910), the election of Felipe Rayos del Sol was voided. The election law at the time allowed only three continuous terms. The exclusion of Pateros did not matter and his fourth re-election was counted against him. His Vice-Presidente Braullio Pagkalinawan was appointed to succeed him while Marcelino Elias was appointed by the Provincial Board of Rizal to succeed as Vice-Presidente.
Those who served with Graciano Juta from October16, 1912 to October 15, 1916 were: Juan Cuevas, Vice-Presidente, and Francisco Roldan, Francisco Pili, Rafael Pagkalinawan, Serapio Balderama, Jose Carlos, Silvestre Buenaventura, Donato Cruz, Mariano Baltazar, as Consejales and Dionisio Capistrano, “Secretario”.
With Jose Pagtakhan from October 16, 1916 to October 15, 1919 were Antero Ignacio, Vice-Presidente, and as “ consejales” were; Jose Aquino, Ponciano Capistrano, Anastacio Yamson, Eugenio Papa, Servillano Manalo, Benito Garcia, Genero Espeleta, and Vidal Joaquin and Marcos Franco “Secretario”.
When Muntilnlupa was segregated from taguig in 1918 Graciano Juta and fortunate Dinguinbayan were appointed to replace Genero Espeleta and Vidal Joaquin who were residents of Muntinlupa.
With Jose Pagtakhan during his second term from October 16,1919 to October 15, 1922 were re-electionist Vice-Presidente Antero Ignacio, and “consejales” Jose Aquino, Simon Sebatian, Raymundo Cruz, Mariano Sarmiento, Servillano Manalo, Eugenio Papa, and marcelino L. Estacio. The latter resigned in January, 1920 aand his place Ramon Ramos was appointed. Leonardo Bautista remained as ”Secretario Municipal”.
A native of Taguig, Pedro Magsalin, was elected and served as Member of the Provincial Board of Rizal under Provincial Governors Andres Gabriel and Arcadio Santos from 1919-1922, representing the First District of Rizal Province.
On August 26, 1920 political leaders and residents of the five barrios of Calzada, Palingon-Tipas, Ibayo-Tipas, and Napindan filed a petition to the Governor General of the Philippines through the Provincial Board of Rizal to separate from Taguig proper and be formed as an independent municipality. Among the signatories were leaders of the Partido Nacionalista, Partido Democrata and Independientes, namely: Pedro Natividad, Tomas San Pedro, Francisco Estacio, Prospero Polintan, Monico Tanyag, Fortunato Dinguinbayan, Francisco Balderrama, Necomedes Bunyi, Victor Cruz, Hilario Bernie, Anastacio Mariano, Lazaro Lontoc, Luciano Santos, Angel Juta, Telesporo Balderama, Vicente Esguerra, Gabriel Mendiola, Manuel Manalo, Pascual Dimaguila, Ricardo Maglipon, Esteban Sta. Ana, and others. The petition was not granted because it was found out that the proposed municipality lacked the financial and economic capability. Moreover, it would have weakened the mother municipality of Taguig.
On the third term of Jose Pagtakhan from October 26, 1922 to October 15, 1925 those who served in his municipal council were: Fortunato Dinguinbayan, Vice-Presidente; Fausto Alano, Leocadio Ignacio, Engracio Dionisio, Julian Dionisio, Mariano Sarmiento, Isidoro Fermin, Marcelo Reyes and Juan San Pedro; and Leonardo Bautista, “Secretario”.
Those who served in the municipal council during the first term of Eusebio Santos from October 16, 1925 to October 15, 1928 were Ciriaco Tiñga as Vice-Presidente, and Fausto Alano, Leocadio Ignacio, Julian Dionisio, Mariano Sarmiento, Eugenio Papa, Felix A. Bernie, Ramon Ramos, and Banito E. Garcia as “Consejales”, and during his second term from October 16, 1928 to October 15, 1931 were Vice-Presidente Tomas San Pedro and Consejales Leocadio Ignacio, Leoncio Dionisio, Severino Santos, Felipe A Bernie, Ciriaco Quilatan, and Patricio Lucas, and Leonardo Bautista, “Secretario”.
In the election for the house of representative of the 9th Legislature Oct. 16, 1931 to Nov. 15, 1935 Pedro Magsalin, a native of Taguig was elected to represent the First district of the province of Rizal.
Those who served with Cleto Mastrili from October 16, 1931 to October 15, 1934 were Exequiel Labao as vice-Presidente, Eustaquio Ordonez, Teotimo Cuevas, Cesario Magsalin, Elino Cruz, Apolonio Ramos, Antonio Cruz, “Consejales”, and Gerardo Manalo as “Secretario”.
Also elected for the same term (1931-1934) I the Provincial Board of Rizal under Governor Francisco Sevilla was Leodovico Labao, a native of Tipas, Taguig representing the First district of Rizal. He was again re-elected to the same position for the next term (1931-191937).
Earlier in July of 1934 an election was also held for delegates to the constitutional convention to draft the Philippine Constitution. Elected to represent the first District of Rizal Province was again a native son of Taguig in the person of Castor T. Cruz.
THE COMMONWEALTH PERIOD
Under the Tydings-McDuffe Law, the United States granted the Philippines a ten-year transition period from 1936 to 1945 known as the Commonwealth. Although interrupted by the Japanese occupation of the Philippines during the Second World War, the following served as Alcaldes Municipal : (1934-1937) (1937-1940) (1941-1942) – Artemio Natividad. Natividad refused to serve under the Japanese government and therefore resigned. In his stead Vice-Alcalde Leocadio de Leon was appointed by the Provincial Board of Rizal. De Leon served from January, 1943 to February 17, 1945.
In the election for the First National Assembly, Pedro Magsalin was again elected to represent the First District of the Province of Rizal (1935-1938).
Those who served with Presidente Municipal Artemio Natividad from October 16, 1934 to October 15, 1937 were Teotimo Cuevas, Vice-Presidente: Francisco de la Rosa,
Sancho Mansod, Francisco Guingcangco, Jose Gerpnimo, Jose Ramos, and Mateo Gregorio, Consejales, and Gerardo Manalo, Secretario.
During the second term of Artemio Natividad as Alcalde municipal from January 1, 1938 to December 31, 1940 the following served within him: Ciriaco Tiñga, Vice-Alcalde; Marcelo Reyes, Juan Capistrano, Tomas Cruz, Melencio Santos, Claro Ramirez, and Jorge Ramos, Consejales, and Gerardo Manalo, Secretario.
On the third term pf Artemio Natividad as Alcalde Municipal which was interrupted by the Japanese occupation, January 1, 1941 to December 3, 1942, the following composed the municipal council: Leocadio de Leon, Vice-Alcalde; Marcelo Reyes, George Ramos, Aniceto Roldan, Mariano Paac, Cirilo Santos and Carlo Dionisio, Consejales. When Artemio Natividad resigned as Alcalde municipal in 1942, Leocadio de Leon succeede him and served the original council without a Vice-Alcalde from January 1, 1943 to February 17, 1945. The council remained the same but Maximino Dionisio served as “Secretario”.
On January 1, 1942, Manila was declared as an open city as the US-Philippine forces (USAFFE) retreated to Bataan and Corregidor. Automatically, Rizal Province fell under the rule of the Japanese Forces. The latter set foot in Taguig in the evening of January 2, 1942.
Among the natives of Taguig who were officers and saw action in the defense of the country against the army were Daniel Victoria, Marcos Estacio, Ricardo G. Papa, Miguel Capistrano and castor Buenaflor. They joined the Death march from Samal, Bataan to Capas, Tarlac after the fall of Bataan and Corregidor on April 9, 1942.
Many among the patriotic people particularly the professionals and government employees refused to serve under the Japanese Government and returned to fishing, farming and commerce for their livelihood awaiting the promised return of Gen. Douglas MacArthur. Many joined the underground movements in 1942 such as Hunters ROTC guerillas and the Markings’ Fil-American Irregular Troops.
The Japanese conducted zonification of all male citizens, twice for the whole town, and separately for each of the thirteen barrios. Suspected guerillas were tortured and sent ot garrisons at Antipolo and Fort Santiago, but the most tragic was the last conducted in the barrio of Tipas on December 1, 1944 where more than 500 men, intellectuals and professionals, were taken and never returned. Among them were Mayor Artemio Natividad, speaker of the Mayors ‘League of Rizal, ex-Prov. Board Member Lodovico Labao, Col. Marcos Estacio, Atty. Carlos Natividad, Dr. Francisco Sta. Ana, Dr. Amado Balderama and a host of others. A marker in honor of these martys inaugurated by then Congressman Ferdinand E. Marcos on February 4, 1949 now stands in Tipas, Taguig, (Rizal), M.Mla.
On the evening of February 5, 1945, Japanese navy soldiers burned all the houses and buildings of barrio Ususan, and would have burned the town proper but for the intercession of one Capitan Kawagutsi, the Japanese Army Commander assigned to Taguig.
At noontime of February 17, 1945, a small contingent, advance scouts of the 11th Airborne Division together with some guerillas penetrated Barrio Wawa and in a brief skirmish at the Taguig River wounded and captured Captain Kawagutsi.
Taguig was liberated on February 23, 1945 after the defeat of the Japanese in the battle of Kay Patag Hills in the barrios of Bicutan and Bagumbayan on February 22, 1945.
From February 17, 1945 the ROTC Hunter Guerillas of Taguig took over the Municipal Hall and established an emergency provisionary local government until June 30, 1945 with their officers interchangeably acting as Alkalde starting with Aquilino Sarmiento with Gonzalo with Gonzalo Magsalin as secretary. Later Pedro D. Cruz took over during the last six months of the commonwealth (July 1-Dec. 31, 1945).
With Pedro D. Cruz in the council were Bonifacio Relon, Vice-Alcalde; Irene A. Cruz, Pio Felipe, Mateo Gregorio, Benito Garcia, Jorge Ramos, Cornelio Carlos, Consejales, and Ireneo Bunyi, Secretary.
Among the officers of the resistance movement and recognized as such were: (ROTC Hunter Guerillas) Lt. Col. Pedro D. Cruz; Majors Guillermo Casa, Ramon Domingo, Francisco Villar; Captains Cirilo de Jesus, Aquilino Sarmiento, Dominadr Realon, Gonzalo Magsalin; Lieutenants Jose Bernie, Generoso Yumping, Mauricio Balagtas, Segundo Santos, Sebastian Marcelo, Marcos Dionisio, Avelino Tanyag, Felipe Gregorio, Marcelo Estacio, Jose Reyes, Ramon Ramos Jr., Gregorio Dionisio, Silvestre Pascual, Benito Flores, Paterno Pagtakhan, Filemon Cipriano, Antonio Manalo, Jose Concepcion, Nicanor Papa, Glicerio Herrera, Melquides Juta, Delfin Buenaventura, Ruben Quilatan, Marcelino Beltran; (Markings Guerilla) Col. Francisco Adriano, Capt. Domingo Marcelino, Lieutenants Gaudencio Lecente, Ireneo Reyes, Saturnino Pagsisihan, Romeo Berdin, Jose Borja, and many others whose names cannot be recalled as of this writing.
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
When civil government was restored, Leocadio de Leon resumed office from Jan. 9, to May 31, 1946. However when Presidential Election of April, 1946, Pedro D. Cruz was appointed Alcalde and served until the first regular election (June-December 31, 1947).
Pres. Roxas appointed a son of Taguig, Former Assemblyman Pedros Magsalin, a member of his Cabinet as secretary of Labor.
Those who served from January to May, 1946 with Leocadio de Leon were: Ciriaco Tiñga, Vice-Alcalde, Mateo Gregorio, George Ramos, Benito Garcia, Eduardo Dionisio, Councilors, and Ireneo Bunyi, Secretary.
The Municipal Council of Taguig who served with Pedro D. Cruz from June 1946 to December 1947 were: Isidro Fermin, Vice-Alcalde; Ireneo A. Cruz, Benito Flores, Simeon Sebastian, Jose Aquino, Anacleto Ocol, Segundo Cruz, councilors, and Ireneo Bunyi, Secretary.
Those who were elected and served as chief executives of the municipality after the proclamation of independence on July 4, 1946 under the Republic of the Philippines were 1948-1951) – Nicanor P. Cruz; (1952-1955) – Bonifacio A. Relon; (1956-2959)(1960-19630)(1964-1967) (1968-1971) – (1972-April 13, 1976) – Monico C. Tanyag; (April 14- August 3, 1976, O.I.C.) August 4, 1976 – March 2, 1980 as Acting Mayor March 3, 1980 – February 1986 as elected Mayor) – Levi B. Mariano.
Elected with Nicanor P. Cruz in the Municipal Council (1948-1951) were: Tiburcio Santos, Vice-Alcalde; Lucio Sanga, Igmidio Pagkalinawan, Alfonso Sarmiento, Benito Flores, Arsenio Javier, Patricio Lucas, Councilors. Ireneo Bunyi was the municipal secretary serving with Bonifacio Relon in the Municipal Council (1952-1955) were Isidro Fermin, Vice-Alcalde, Amalio D. Bernie, Melquiades D. Santos, Conrado B. carlos, Moises P. cruz, Pio T. Felipe, and Claudio Marcelo as Councilors. The Latter resigned and was replaced by Benito Garcia. Leocadio Pagkalinawan served as secretary. Later he was replaced by Nicanor M. Patricio. Conrado Carlos resigned on Sept. 18, 1955 while Moises Cruz also resigned on Aug. 21, 1955; and in their place Herminigildo Caseres and Roque Rodolfo were appointed, respectively.
During the first term of Monico C. Tanyag (1956-1959) the following were elected with him: Alfonso C. Roldan, Vice-Alcalde; Juan Capistrano, Ramon Marcelino, Severo Pagkalinawan, Niceas Ordonez, Francisco Tortosa, Tomas Cruz, Councilors. The Municipal Secretary was Eufracio D. Santos. When the latter resigned, Miss Zosima Polintan took over.
During the second term of Monico C. Tanyag (1960-1963) the following were elected with him: Augusto M. Garcia, Vice-Mayor, Luciano Lontoc, Donato Estacio, Jose Pili, Niceas Olazo, Angel Santos, and Ramon Marcelino, Councilors. Benedicto R. Esguerra acted as municipal secretary. Atty. Levi B. Mariano was Legal Adviser to the Mayor.
On the third term of Monico C. tanyag (1964-1967) the following composed the Municipal Council: Jose C. Bernie, Vice-Mayor; Teodoro Arriola, Benedicto Cruz, Felipe Dones, Jose Mendiola, Miguel Olazo, Serapio Sta. Ana, and Benjamin Mariano, Councilors. Benedicto R. Esguerra was the Secretary.
During the Presidency of Diosdado Macapagal two of the major commands of the Armed Forces of the Philippine Army and the Philippine Air Force were placed in the hands of two of Taguig sons, namely: Brig. Gen. Ricardo G. Papa, and Brig. Gen. Jonas Victoria, respectively. Later, President Marcos promoted another son of Taguig, Brig. Gen. Castor Buenaflor, Inspector General of the AFP.
During the fourth term of Monico C. Tanyag (1968-1971) the following were elected with him: Alvaro P. Villar, Vice-Mayor; Rolando Garcia, Pedro Olazo, Pascual Sarmiento,
Rufino Dacumos, Benedicto R. Cruz, Felino Marcelino, Renato Quilatan and Ricardo R. Cruz. Benedicto R. Esguerre served as Municipal Secretary.
During the fifth term of Monico C. Tanyag (1972-1975) the following were elected with him: Nicanor C. Garcia, Vice-Mayor, Pascual Sarmiento, Pedro Olazo, Mariano Maglipon, Francisco Borja, Euleterio Candaza, Pacifico Santos, Leo Pagkalinawan and Crispin Reyes, The last two however, resigned during the first two years of the term.
MARTIAL LAW YEARS
On September 21, 1972 by virtue of proclamation No. 1081, President Ferdinad Marcos declared martial law in the Philippines.
On November 7, 1975 Metropolitan Manila was created consisting of four (4) cities and thirteen municipalities under the administration of the Metropolitan manila Commission by virtue of Presidential Decree No. 824 the municipality of Taguig was segregated from the province of Rizal and made a part of Metropolitan Manila.
The Municipal Council of Taguig was dissolved by virtue of PD 824 on November 7, 1975 but the incumbent Council members were included in a Sangguniang Bayan whose membership also involved nine Sectoral representatives and seven Barangay captains and representative of Kabataang Barangay. As constituted, the Sangguniang Bayan of taguig was composed of: Levi B. Mariano, Presiding Officer; Nicanor B. Garcia, President Pro-Tempore, Francisco Borja, Rolando Dionisio, Pascual Sarmiento, Mariano Maglipon, Pedro Olazo, Eleuterio Candaza, Pacifico Osano, Francisco de la Cruz, Eliseo D. Santos, Manuel Pascual, Mercindo Mendoza, Marcelo Lucas, Augustin Lagangan, Donato Estacio, Domingo Tengco, Bernardino Elias, Isidro Garcia, Emmanuel Mulawin, Eusebio Sta. Barbara and Virgilio Eustaquio.
When Monico C. Tanyag fell ill, Atty. Levi B. Mariano was appointed Officer In-Charge of the Mayor’s Office on April 14, 1976. When Mayor Tanyag died on July 21, 1976, Mariano was appointed Acting Mayor of Taguig effective August 4, 1976 and held post throughout the Marcos years until the Edsa People Power Revolution of February, 1986.
By virtue of Presidential Decree No. 557 dated September 20, 1974 all newly created barrios and citizens assemblies under PD 86, as amended were declared Barangays and all references to the barrio in and existing law henceforth were understood and referred to as barangay.
The Minucipalty of Taguig now comprising of eighteen (18) barangays with corresponding area in hectars, namely: Bagumbayan – 362 has, Bagong Tanyag – 217 has., Upper Bicutan – 144 has., Lower Bicutan - 235 has., Western Bicutan – 355 has., Maharlika Village – 51 – has., Signal Village has., Hagonoy – 162 has., Wawa – 198 has., Bambang – 92 has., Ususan – 145 has., Tuktukan – 31 has., Sta. Ana – 22 has., Calzada –177 has., Palingon – 117 has., Ligid-Tipas – 68 has., Ibayo-Tipas – 68 156 has., and Napindan – 270 has.
The remaining balance of 1,626.2 hectares are within Ft. Bonifacio Military Reservation.
THE POST EDSA PEOPLE POWER REVOLUTION:
With the restoration of Philippine Democracy and the start of the Administration of President Corazon C. Aquino on February, 1986, Isidro Garcia was appointed O.I.C.-Mayor and Donato L. Estacio replaced Garcia as O.I.C.-Mayor and served until 1988 when local elections were held and a new mayor was elected. During the Incumbency of Garcia and Estacio, no members of the Municipal Council were appointed and the municipal executive at the time was assisted by a management committee composed of heads of offices.
In the election of May, 1988, Rodolfo de Guzman was elected Mayor and Pacifico Santos, Vice-Mayor and held offices effective October, 1988, the delay of which was caused by a prolonged electoral protest. After the elections of 1988, it was only on October 10, 1988 that the elected Mayor Rodolfo de Guzman took over the reins of government of the municipality. The other elected officials were: Pacifico Santos, Vice-Mayor and Agapito R. Cruz, Jr., Dionisio G. Papa, Herminia C. Perez, Vivencio B. Estacio, Martin D. Casas, Mario C. Reyes, Daniel M. Castillo, Danilo C. Rayos del Sol, Rufino J. Mamonong and Rene G. Labuntog, Councilors. Delio J. Santos represented the ABC in the Council.
Ricardo G. Papa Jr. was elected Mayor for 1992-1995. Elected with Mayor Papa were: Daniel M. Castillo, Vice-Mayor and Allan Peter S. Cayetano, Allan Paul C. Cruz, Ricardo S. Cruz, Jr., Mario C. Reyes, Philip D. Pagkalinawan, Danilo C. Rayos del Sol, Ricardo J. Jordan, Danilo G. Castro, Marisse L. Balina and Gualberto M. Roa, councilors.
For 1995 – 1998, Isidro Garcia was first proclaimed Mayor and Dra. Loida-Alzona as Vice-Mayor. However, during the later part of 1997, Mayor Ricardo G. Papa, Jr. was proclaimed the duly elected Mayor of the municipality. Before the end of the Administrative year 1995 – 1995, Alan Peter S. Cayetano was also proclaimed as the elected Vice-Mayor. Elected councilors were Allan Paul Cruz, Jr., Robert S. Dionisio, Gamaliel N. San Pedro, Philip D. Pagkalinawan, Milagros F. Valencia, Marisse Balina-Eron, Ricardo j. Jordan, Leo M. Aguilar, Danilo G. Castro, Jr., and Valencio T. Osano.
Venacio T. Osano was replaced by his wife Lolita G. Osano who was appointed by the party after the former died.
For 1998-2001, the incumbent, Ricardo D. Papa, Jr. was reelected Mayor. Also elected were: Dra. Loida Labao-Alzona, Vice-Mayor, and Danilo G. Castro, Ricardo D. Cruz, Jr., George A. Elias, Reynaldo C. Flores,Robert S. Dionisio, Gamaliel N. San Pedro, Elpidio Javier, Noel Dizon, Carlos Catacio, Milagros F. Valencia, Ricardo J. Jordan and Leo M. Aguilar, Councilors. Atty. Henry I Dueñas as ABC President and Ryanne Gutierez as SK Federation President represented ABC and SK Federation, respectively, in the Council.
Si Bonifacio Anak ng Taguig at ang Parola ng Himagsikang Taga-Ilog
Alam ng karaniwang Pilipino na si Andres Bonifacio ay isnilang sa Tondo, Maynila. Ang di nila alam, ang ama niyang si si Santiago Bonifacio ay mula sa bayan ng Taguig na nasa bukana ng Ilog Pasig sa Laguna de bay. May kabuhayan ito sa Maynila kaya tumira sa Tondo, ngunit lagging paroo’t parito, kasama si Andres. Samakatuwid, ang nagtatag ng at Supremo ng katipunan, ang Ama ng Bansa na inuluwal sa liyab ng Himagsikan noong 1896, ay isang anak ng Taguig. Ngunit hindi ito nalalaman ng mga Pilipino o ng kahit ng kasalukuyang mga taga-Taguig.
May dalawa pang mahalagang kaugnayan si Gat Andres sa Taguig, particular pa sa nayon ng Napindan na may isang parola o bantayan sa hangganan ng ilog at ng lawa. May praktikal at simbolikong papel ang paroling iyon sa katipunan at sa Himagsikan.
Ang lupaing nakapaligid sa lumang parola ay ginamit na sentro ng koordinasyon at komunikasyon ng Katipunan. Halimbawa, pagbalik pa ni Dr. Pio Valenzuela matapos niyang makausap si Dr. Jose P. Rizal sa Dapitan, nag-ulat siya kay Bonifacio sa may lumang parola ng Napindan. Maraming pinag-aralan at pinagpasyahang usapin sa liwanag ng parola, ng buwan at mga bituin. Kapag may dumarating na patrolya ng guardia civil, ang mga Katipunero’y biglaaang naglalaho sa dilim. Mulang pagkabata ay kabisado na ni Bonifacio ang pasikot-sikot doon.
Ang ipinangalan nina Bonifacio sa bansang isinisilang doon ng Rebolusyon ay “Katagalugan”. Karamihan kasi ng mga komunidad sa buong kapuluan ay nakatira sa may mga ilog, at katunaya’y kasingkahulugan ng katagang “taga-ilog” ang mga katagang “I-loocan” (Ilokano0, “ibanag”, “kapampangan”, “taga-agusan’, “suba-non” (kasing ugat ng “sugbuhanon”) at ng “taausug”. Daloy ng ilog ang tumutuhog sa pagkakahawig ito na binuklod ng mga pamayanang ito na binuklod ng Katipunan bilang isang bansa noong (1892-96). Tunay nga, ang ilog ay angkop na sagisag ng ating pagkabansa.
Sa Katipunan, ang apoy, araw at liwanag ay mga simbolo naman ng Katotohanan at Katuwiran.
Sa parola ng Napindan, ang mga simbolo ng ilog at ng liwanag ay pinagsanib. Kinatawan nito ang malalim na pilosopiyang binuo nina Bonifacio at tinaglay ng mga Katipunero, kasabay ng mga simulating magpakatao at makipagkapwa-tao na nakahnay sa labing-apat na aral na nasa Kartilya ng Katipunan.
Mula pa noong 1992, nagpupunyagi na ang Kamalaysayan (Kampanya para sa Kamalayan sa Kasaysayan) na masaliksik at maipalaganp ang mga katotohanan ukol sa malalim na diwa at pilosopiya ng Katipunan, upang hindi puro tapang at galit lamang ng mga Katipunero ang makilala ng sambayanang Pilipino. Mahalagang ambag ang mga pananaliksik ni Jose Eduardo Doroteo Velasquez, sa tulong ng mga historian ng Pasig na sina Dr. Carlos Tech at Dr. Luciano Santiago. Si Velasquez ang pangalawang director-tagapagpaganap ng kamalaysayan at tagapag-ugnay nito sa buong saklaw ng silangang Metro Manila at lalawigang Rizal. Marami nang makasaysayan pook ang nililinagng ng Kamalaysayan sa kamalyan ng madla, tulad ng Kuweba ng Pamitinan sa Montalban, “bahay-Kuwago” at “Bitukang Manok” sa Pasig, at ito ngang Pook ng Parola sa Napindan, Taguig.
Ang Papel ng Taguig sa Katipunan at Rebolusyon
Hunyo,1896,Pook ng Parola,Nayon ng Napindan, Bayan ng Taguig
Pagkagaling sa bayan ng Dapitan, lalawigan ng Zamboanga, iniulat ngayon ni Dr. Pio Valenzuela sa Supremo Andres Bonifacio ng naging palagay ni Dr. Jose Rizal tungkol sa binabalak na paghihimagsik ng mga Anak ng Bayan. Ang pag-uulat ni Dr. Valenzuela ay alinsunod sa atas ng Asamblea Magna Kataas-taasang, Kagalang-galangan, Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan na isinagawa nitong nakalipas na unang lingo ng Mayo sa Bitukang Manok, bayan ng Pasig.
Habang nagkakasayahan ang mga kapatid sa kanilang paglangoy sa malinaw at malayang anod ng tubig papalabas ng lawa ng Bai, kasabay ng lagaslas ng kaiga-igayang agos, inihayag ni Dr. Valenzuela ang pagtingin ni Rizal sa napipintong pagsiklab ng himagsikan. Anya, hindi nais tangkilikin ni Rizal ang isang pag-aalsang binalak nang lingid sa kanyang kaalaman. Gayunman nagbigay si Rizal ng ilang payo… “Tiyakin ang suporta ng malalaking mangangalakal at ng mga kinkikilalang indio”… “Tiyaking sapat ang kahandaan ng mamamayan”… “Dapat makuha ang suporta ng mga gubyerno ng ibang bansa”… “Isama ninyo si Antonio Luna. Magaling siya.”
ELECTED MAYORS of TAGUIG
APPOINTED MAYORS OF TAGUIG
TAGUIG STRATEGIC CONCEPT PLAN
“One of the Premier Cities in Asia”
Taguig’s image of rural-ness and isolation has been challenged by the city’s dramatic vision for its future. The Taguig Strategic Concept Study is a step in translating that vision into reality. Taguig is already remarkable-internationally-for its social and visual diversity. From its western boundary with Forbes Park to Laguna de Bay, Taguig presents a rich palette of contrast: low-rise housing with a view of a 50-storey towers; dense neighborhoods looking out into open fields, Ian historic old town and a 21st century business district, the American memorial that is a focus of international tourism, and the lakeside barangay of Napindan, currently well outside the tourist orbit.
This plan sets out a strategy for land and water resource management to balance regional development and environmental resource protection around Laguna de bay. In this plan the Taguig project area is zoned for urban and industrial uses. The plan suggests a number of development possibilities which might be applicable to Taguig including fisheries, cottage industries, power generation, and water supply. In addition the plan advocates the establishment of a variety of institutions for research, education, environmental monitoring and management, and trade that might be suitably located in Taguig.
LAGUNA LAKE DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY, RESOLUTION 23.
This measures puts severe limitations on the use of lands below an elevation of 12.5 meters, which would include nearly 70% of Taguig. While this is of grave concern for development opportunities, there are a few mitigating factors: 1) Flood control measures may allow the restrictions to be relaxed or changed. 2) The Board of LLDA may choose to overlook this measure in regards to development in Taguig. 3) Development contributions on “the regional scale” may also be allowed.
The demographic survey of Taguig confirms that it is experiencing rapid growth, primarily due to immigration from other areas of the Philippines. Over the last ten years, Taguig has sustained an annual growth rate of 7%, much higher than neighboring Makati (2%) or even Metro Manila as a whole (3.5%). With a comparatively low population density (8,000 persons/sq.km. versus Manila’s 12,500), there is more space for expansion. Also, the relative cost of a home in Taguig is low compared to Makati.
Homeownership in taguig is high (76%) but lot ownership is comparatively low (58%). 28% of residents are occupying, land for free, reflecting the occurrence of squatting. Single-detached homes comprise 69% of the housing supply.
The population of Taguig is younger and less well educated, and more likely to be employed in unskilled or daily-wage jobs than the Metro Manlia average. Unemployment is low (9%), gainful employment is high (80%), and the jobs breakdown indicates a high concentration of craft-oriented and plant/machine operations work. It is notable that the only 1% of the total work force in Taguig is engaged in farming and fishing. This is comparable to Manila as a whole.
OTHER IMPORTANT INFORMATION:
Household size average 5.0 members.
Only 43% of household get their water from a faucet; the rest get it from deep well and peddlers.
14% of household have no electricity.
The garbage collection system in Taguig serves only 39% of its households.
Only 2% of households have a telephone.
Only 7% of households own a vehicle.
There is a marked for need for improvements in utililities, including drinking water supply, electricity supply, garbage collection, and telephone service. In survey conducted July 1995 for all of Metro Manila, the leading concerns of Taguig residents were flooding, drug addiction, unemployment, water supply, garbage collection, and traffic.
Flooding is the major obstacle to future successful development in Taguig, with over half of the municipality within the flood zone. Site the “hinge” between Laguna de Bay and the Pasig River, Taguig suffers the consequences of a low elevation, poor soil permeability, altered natural drainage (via the Napindan hydraulic control gate), and water runoff from a large geographical area, which has been further aggravated by recent developments. Taguig has a water elevation of 10.00m. Laguna Lake’s only outlet is the Pasig River and its overflow water inundates 66% of the municipality area from Ibayo, Napindan, Palingon, Ususan, Tuktukan, Calzada, Sta. Ana, Bambang, Wawa, Hagonoy, down to lower Bicutan and Bagumbayan.
At present Taguig is served only by South Super Highway to the west and R4 to the north with C5 in-between. There is limited access to all three from the most populated regions of the city. Given Taguig’s large area and population, theses few links to regional travel routes are far from sufficient. Within Taguig, only one substandard roadway connects most of the barangays, and most streets are too narrow to handle the current traffic load.
Taguig’s population is swelling at a tremendous rate, with an essential 380,000 people in 1995, and current growth rate of over 7%. As an official reception point for immigrants to the Metropolitan area, Taguig’s already insufficient infrastructure has been burdened by an even greater demand for basic needs. Foremost among there is housing along with associated social services.
WATER, SEWAGE and SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
The municipality suffers from inadequate water supply, sewage treatment, and garbage collection systems. Basic improvements to this infrastructure is crucial for future development. From this dynamic base, Taguig will become even more diverse in the coming years. Probably no other city in the Philippines will experience greater change over the next decade than Taguig. The areas around Bonifacio and the Food Terminal will be transformed completely. At a 7% growth rate, population will double. And the improvements called for by this study can make Taguig into a crossroads of Metro Manila – and one of the premier cities in Asia.
Taguig in the 21st Century, the municipality’s documents, is thoughtful and specific. It begins with a plausible premise and proceeds logically and efficiently through the municipal actions necessary to achieve goals. It declares Taguig’s intent to become “one of the premiere cities in Asia” over the next quarter-century. This is possible because the community has a beautiful natural setting, is still largely undeveloped transportation center (with proximity to both the airport and a network of new highways) and is adjacent to the nation’s business centers. Moreover, Taguig’s overall guiding vision is three-fold: this is to become a city with (1) an international business focus: (2) superior residential environments for everyone: and (3) a national recreational attraction.
HOW THE VISION BECOMES REALITY
While the municipal actions in Taguig in the 21st Century are presented in an a la carte fashion, the Strategic Concepts Study incorporates them in a comprehensive approach. The Concept Study prioritizes the issues and seeks solutions that play multiple roles in the context of the city’s goals. Some of the actions are critical to the city; stability and growth. This is why, for example, this report places so much emphasis on implementation of flood control measures and traffic improvements. The plan also combines development ideas. For example, what we call Old Taguig –the area around around and cast of the municipality hall –is an historically and visually important environment. One can expect more retail, food and entertainment venues to locate here in the near future.
This will create a draw based on both the visual environment and the level of the activity, which is the formula for districts like Ermita and Malate, Chinatown in Singapore and vancouver’s Gastown. Such a district will provide a convenient lunch and after-hours destination for business people in Bonifacio as well as entertainment area for residents of the community. It will also support the recreational attractions developed along Laguna de Bay and elsewhere in Taguig. The purpose of this study is to provide an integrated strategy for executing the vision, making it a reality. It is very important to note that this Strategy Concept Study provides a framework for what is to done. It does not specify how the “what” is to be done. That is policy decision for Taguig.
SCOPE and INTENT
The Taguig Concept study has attempted to take a broad view of both the problems and potential solutions. While not a detailed investigation, this study has tried to take into account a wide range of factors and to propose strategies that have both clarity of vision and a far reaching effect. The Concept Plan recommends short term improvements of living environment, traffic, and infrastructure, and provides long term conceptual development strategies to realize the growth objectives set out by the Municipality and to complement the development of Bonifacio. This is an urban design study, and while the physical planning strategies proposed here have strong implications for the social and economic future of Taguig, they must be complemented by programs and policies in other realms that are beyond the scope of this study. The intent of this study is to provide a vision and direction for physical change needed to meet the challenges of the future. While this plan does contain some practical and pragmatic steps, it is not a blueprint for Taguig’s future, nor an exact picture of the city at some future date. It is meant as a tool to be used by Taguig leaders, to clarify their own vision, and so to help steer a course towards a new and promising future. More detailed studies will be needed to execute this vision.
RESEARCH & ANALYSIS
As the first step in our Concept Study, we gathered information to put together an accurate picture of Taguig today. This information came from both public and private sector sources, and was sometimes anecdotal, sometimes rigorously scientific. What emerged was a portrait of the problems and potentials of the municipality.
North Laguna Lakeshore Urgent Flood Control and Drainage Project
Laguna de Bay Master Plan
Laguna Lake Development Authority, Resolution 23
Zoning Ordinance Of The National Capital Region
Municipality Location Plans in Regional
Municipality Plan Showing Accurate Boundaries
Municipality Plan Showing All Major Roadway and Building Footprints
Aerial Photos of Municipality
Existing Land Use Plan
Proposed Land Use Plan
Detailed Engineering Design of the North Laguna Lakeshore Urgent Flood Control and Drainage Project (Design Report)
This document describes a plan for a flood control dike along the northern shore of Laguna de bay, which extends into the project area. The C6 highway will not follows this dike. Other flood control improvements will also be constructed, including river improvements, drainage canals, regulation ponds, pumping stations, floodgates, and bridges. Construction of the improvements is expected to start in 1997 and be completed in 5 years.
A successful plan must do more than provide spaces for activities to occur; it must also given them an identity. For example, a large vacant parcel of land and Rizal Park are both open spaces. While they are technically the same thing-open space-they are nevertheless very different. One is merely space. The other has been developed following a design scheme, and is programmed for a great civic delebrations: it has high symbolic importance to Filipinos. The difference between the two is the application of creativity, of civic expressions to an open space.
On a large scale, cities the world over are comprised of residential, commercial, civic and industrial districts. Yet every city has its own character. For instance, we think of both Singapore and Hong Kong as business centers. Yet they look and operate very differently. Singapore sees itself as a “garden city”, why this is scarely any landscape in the built-up sections of Hong Kong. Both cities can successfully argue the appropriateness of their approach civic expression. Singapore can say that a pleasant, orderly environment is attractive to international business. Hong Kong can counter that a dense commercial concentration is attractive to international business. Clearly, both are right.
According to its town policy document (Taguig in the 21st Century), Taguig is best characterized as “friendly”, so we need to understand exactly what choices that implies. We can develop appropriate directions for Taguig by placing the overall goals within the context of expectations.
To create ‘”one of the century’s premiere leisure destinations” one should expect: (1) employment of the Laguna de Bay lakefront; (2) support from existing areas like Old Taguig; (3) new venues; and (4) a planning scheme that ties everything together in a unique way.
To be “friendly”, an attraction should be an absolutely unique environment, with scenic beauty, imaginative design and expectational programming. The notion of a mix of theseelements is important, since The Philippines is blessed with scenic beauty that even the outstanding setting of Laguna de Bay, by itself, might not qualify as a national attraction. Likewise, good access, while important to any attraction, would not be enough. And even an excellent marina and beach facilities, again, while potentially important ingredients to a more complete attraction, are, of course, not unique in the Philippines. Approach that is innovative and visionary is called for.
USEFUL DEVELOPMENT MODELS
It is important to consider some other, comparable development models. Among many such attractions, world-wide, two may be of special value as possible models for Taguig. These are Jones Beach, built in the late 1920’s on New York’s Long Island; and the Gloria-Flamengo Botafogo landfill developed in Rio de Janeiro in the early 1950’s.
Jones Beach-Innovative Expression
When Jones beach opened in 1929, there was noting like in the world. At a time when beach bathhouses were typically little more than wooden sheds, Jones Beach featured two immense stone-and-break bathhouses, each with 10,000 lockers. These were sited nearby a kilometer and a half apart and linked by an expansive boardwalk. The dramatic 60 meter high water tower was not a metal tank on slits, as was typical, but a stone tower based upon one in Venice. You arrived from New York City on a dedicated, grade-separated parkway, which ended, at a 10,000- car-parking slot (soon expanded). Jones Beach was an immediate and continuing success as an attraction, and drew extensive and highly-favorable international press coverage. While the scale and architectural qualities of Jones Beach are impressive, two other are more important to Taguig. One of these is its attention to detail; the other is its openness to all.
ATTENTION TO DETAIL- Jones beach carried a nautical theme down to the smallest detail. Boardwalk railings were ship’s railings; water fountains were turned on and off ship’s pilot wheels camouflaged trashcan camouflaged in ship’s funnels. Marine symbols like maps and compasses were set into concrete sidewalks, and employees were dressed as sailors. Even the buttons of employee uniforms were engraved with a seahorse, the symbol of Jones Beach. A trip to Jones Beach was an experience of continuos visual discovery.
This was a remarkable environment because it was so consistent at every level of detail. Because of this, the Jones Beach experience was far more than just a trip to the beach. The lesson for Taguig’s national attraction is that there should be a consistency at all levels of such a development, from the site plan, to the architecture, programming, staffing and site details. As is so often the case, it is the things that make the difference.
OPENNESS TO ALL- There was a large choice of activities at Jones beach, in addition to lying on the sand and swimming in the ocean. Many of these were free or nominal in cost. These included pitch & putt, tennis, archery, and diving. Games along the boardwalk were ships games: shuffle board, quoits, deck tennis, and ping-pong. There was something for everyone, and the symbolism was very important: “everyone is welcome here” in food service, too, there was something for everyone, from extremely inexpensive cafes for families of very modest incomes, to luxurious, 8,200 seat open air dinner theater, where the famed Guy Lombardo’s orchestra played well into the night for upper crust patrons. You might arrive on a motorcycle or by limousine, but you always felt welcome at Jones Beach. A national attraction in Taguig would need to make everyone feel welcome. The basic formula is as follows: (1) the major element of the attraction – the view of Laguna de Bay – should be accessible to all without significant cost; (2) there should be a full (economic) range of activities, goods and food service; and (3) these should be provided in relative balance – not dominated by any economic or age group.
Gloria Flamingo-Botafogo Landfill-Visionary Expression
The “Gloria Embankment” landfill project is very similar in scale to the landfill proposed under this Strategic Concept study, Like Taguig, the pre 1950’s bayfront neighborhoods of Rio – barangays were interconnected only by a 2-lane road of about the same capacity as Bagumbayan/Manuel Quezon; this was the only direct connection between downtown and the airport on the north, and Rio’s vibrant international tourism districts to the south.
The Gloria Flamengo-Botafogo landfill development program contains a number of elements, which are comparable to elements in and around Taguig. These include a north-south connector highway similar in scale to the proposed C-6; the airport, a national Museum of Modern Art and a national War Memorial; regional elements such as a marina and city garden; and neighborhood scale improvements like seating areas, game courts and playfields.
While this is very complete development program, even by international standards, what makes the Gloria-Flamengo-Botafogo landfill unique is that it is executed under a master design? Thus it reds as a single environment:
To have meaningful development in the Municipality of Taguig, the above-listed critical issues must be approached strategically. The Strategic Concept Plan’s approach establishes infrastructure as an organizational framework and the suggests land uses which compliment existing uses and future areas of growth.
The Strategic Concept Plan’s innovative strategy incorporates the flood control system of canals and greenopenspaces that serve as retention areas for floodwater. The objective is to turn the water, once a flooding hazard, into an idenfiable amenity feature.
Currently there is a plan for a long dike, which will run roughly along the perimeter of the lake, beginning in Taguig and continuing North into Pasig. Also there is a plan for a new circumferential highway, the C6. While the exact position has yet to be determined the possibility exists either to combine these two or to run them parallel to each other.
The flooding problem, however, cannot be solved simply by building a dike. A dike may prevent the water of the lake from intruding upon Taguig, but it will also prevent land in Taguig from draining into the lake, a natural process, which is necessary any time, it rains. Run-off from new developments may exacerbate this problem. A large dike will also be a physical and visual barrier to the main natural amenity of the site, Laguna de Bay.
CANALS, FLOOD GATES, and RETENTION PONDS
The Strategic Concept Plan seeks to create a system canals, levees, and small lakes –the water level of which will be controlled by floodgates in a scaled down version of the proposed dike. The new waterways will be connected to existing creeks and rivers, and to a new spillway running out to Manila Bay. Through a piping and pumping system the system will be any overflow from Laguna de Bay through the spillway to Manila de Bay. Flood control will not aid only Taguig, but all those communities around Laguna de Bay that suffer from flooding. The canals will also serve as waterways for small boats, providing a secondary transportation network.
To minimize flooding, the proposed drainage works will include:
Reinforced concrete pipe culverts for higher areas (upper Taguig)
Reinforced concrete covered canal for low lying areas particularly near the Bay
Improvement and/or dredging of existing outfalls
Provide outlet6 protection works and/or energy dissipation at the outlet to the river/bay
Revetment wall along the shoreline
Improvement at the discharge points of the flood drainage system should be provided with flap gates, to prevent floodwater during heavy downpour. Retention basin for additional outfall during heavy downpour will be incorporated.
The overall effect is to bring in water in a carefully controlled manner that will eliminate flooding while providing recreation and transport for the municipality. In the future this system may even tourists.
The new small lakes and ponds will serve a water retention function but will serve a water retention function but will also be an amenity lined with a network of open spaces. The open space system will be incorporated into the flood control system with a green edge lining many of the new waterways. This open space network will serve to connect major centers of activity (including the Bonifacio area) and will serve to break up/organize the land to smaller, water-oriented tracts for development by individual developers.
Transportation is already a problem within Taguig, with narrow streets, a lack of through-roads, and heavy traffic loads. The growing population and new development will only further burden and an already inadequate system. The Strategic Concept Plan recommends a series of improvements, both long term and short term, with the goal of having a well integrated and hierarchally differentiated road network. Better public transportation system with connections to other parts of the metropolitan region are also proposed.
Short term improvements transit stations, road improvements, and key new roads. Established at key junctures, transit stations serve as nodes on public transportation routes, and facilitate interchanges between routes. In the long term, a better public transportation system will give people more commuting options and thus reduce the total number of vehicles on the road. The widening and upgrading of certain roads is also a vital short term step. Lastly, the creation of several new connectors will case some of the current congestion problem. The most important of this is a road parallel to the existing North South Bagumbayan/Manuel Quezon road, connecting through the older part of Taguig to the Bonifacio area. With east-west connectors between the two this new road will work in conjunction with the improvements to the existing road and allow for the possibility of creating paired one – way routes. Existing interchanges on the South Super-Highway should also be upgraded, especially at the Food Terminal. Due to the town’s elevation of 11.32 which is below the maximum flood level of 14.62m as recorded in 1990 the roads are flood prone and therefore should be elevated.
STRATEGIC CONCEPT PLAN
The proposed C6, along with the dike, is the backbone of the Strategic Concept Plan recommends that the new highway run about 400m east of the existing North South road (Bagumbayan, Manuel Quezon). In this way, the construction impact on the existing community will be minimized and the final result will be a parallel north-south road system. This parallel system has greater long-term capacity because through traffic will be separated from local traffic. Without this separation, both through and the local traffic flow will be compromised and C6 will not fulfill its circumferential function. With C6, the entire Metro Manila region stands to benefit from this new traffic system.
In addition to the new C6, the Strategic Concept Plan seeks to create more east-west connections, starting with the extension of R4 in the north and the upgrade of Sucat Road in the south. These will create better external connections between Taguig and the surrounding cities. New internal roads will also connect C-6 to interchanges currently being planned along C-5: Heritage, Commando, and Upper East Gate. These new connections will dramatically reduce the travel time between Bonifacio and central Taguig.
The long-term objective is to create a complete network of roads with medium-sized roads forming a lattice around smaller through –roads. The creation of the C6 highway, R4 extension, and upgrading of key internal routes will allow Taguig to act as a crucial transportation link, while facilitating internal circulation.
Housing, is a crucial need in Taguig, but should also be seen as an opportunity to direct community development and provide a focus for infrastructure development of social services. Residential development should be the primary focus for new development areas, and range from lower to higher end.
Several focus areas for housing development should be identified, and a program to provide medium term housing for the immigrant population established with federal assistance. New neighborhoods should be coordinated with social services and other community-building programs. These developments will serve as focal points for the extension and improvement of water, sewage, and public transportation and other infrastructure systems. The Strategic Concept Plan envisions clusters of small residential street grids integrated into the road and canal network, and centered on local commercial centers providing daily goods and services.
In addition to meeting this immediate housing need the opportunity arises to provide higher-end housing along the new lake shoreline. With flood control measures in place, this real state would be a prized location for lower density, middle and upperend. Given certain key infrastructure improvement, it is hoped that market demand will be high enough to assure that this housing is built.
The water, sewage and solid waste infrastructure systems can be developed in conjunction with the road and water framework in an efficient manner. New areas designated for community-oriented housing should be dispersed throughout the municipality yet of sufficient critical mass to support needed infrastructure expansion and development.
Like Fort Bonifacio, Taguig in the 21st century will have a dual water supply system consisting of drinking water and recycled supply systems. The drinking water system supplies high quality water to meet the expectations of the international business community. Initial water supply would be from MWSS, and in the longer term, from a water treatment plant and supply from Laguna de Bay. To minimize the use of higher quality drinking water supply, the, the recycled water system will supply water for toilet flushes and other recycled water uses such as path hosing, watering of lawns, and washing cars. Water for this supply will ultimately be recycled water from the proposed sewage treatment plant.
The population of the municipality of Taguig for the year 1995 is 381,350; with a growth rate of 6.93%, the predicted population for the year 2020 is 2,019,710. With a water consumption of 40 gallons (151 liter) per capital per day, a water treatment plant is proposed with a capacity of 306,000 cu m. per day, to treat the water impounding reservoirs to store water from Laguna de Bay as a source of supply. Pumping stations with storage and distribution networks would be provided and should coordinated with the laying of other services and road construction. The pumping station would be integrated into utilities centers, with wastewater, power, and emergency power generating facilities.
The installation of the sewerage collection and disposal system for the whole municipality of Taguig and a sewage treatment plant to treat domestic/institutional waste water before disposal is necessity in order to prevent pollution of natural water resources. Taguig in the 21st century will also be served system with sewage treatment plant for recycling waste water/sewage. The total discharge is estimated to be 26601/s and would be pumped to the proposed sewage treatment plant for conversion into recycled water. Wastewater and sewage would be collected by sewers and flow by gravity to pumping stations located at strategic points to suit the general contour of the land. The lift stations would be integrated into designated utilities centers and each would be provided with emergency power.
The expected wastewater to be produced by the population for the year 2020 is taken as 75% of the water consumption (306,000 cu.m./day) and the required capacity of the proposed sewage treatment plant is 229,500 cu.m.per day.
The recycled delivery system will consist of a storage tank and a pump station at the sewage treatment plant. Recycled water is pumped from sewage treatment via a force main to the recycled water reservoir. The recycled water system will operate as a pumped system with the pump station drawing from the recycled water reservoir and feeding supply into the distribution system.
Under normal conditions all storm water drainage would be in underground pipes and culverts.
For solid waste disposal, the assumed unit is taken as 0.5 kg. capita per day. For the predicted population, total solid waste is estimated to be 1009ton/day. Localized collection of solid waste could be provided by the municipality or a private service contractor may be employed. Collected waste would be carried to a waste would be compacted and loaded into containers for transfer to sanitary landfill sites. The municipal officials are amenable to the installation of a transfer site and to delivering the solid waste disposal areas, such as the Cardona and San Mateo disposal area. Education and training on classifying, sorting, storage, and disposal could be provided through the municipal health and sanitation departments.
Power upgrading and development of the Taguig power system by Meralco will be made tandem to the development of Bonifacio Global City part of Taguig. Existing overhead power lines of Napocor and Meralco will be changed to underground system in the Taguig area. New and Upgraded main power lines (high voltage and medium voltage) will be run underground) along the new C5 and C6 highway that run across Taguig. New substations will be provided and existing substation will be upgraded to meet the power demands of Taguig as a City.
PLDT and new telecommunication companies like SMART are starting to provide Taguig with new telephone lines. New telecom centers, fiber opties communication networks, and satellite links will also provided to meet the communication requirements of Taguig.
The philosophy behind the Strategic Concept Plan is that existing areas should remain undisturbed except for gradual upgrading of streets and facilities. New land uses will arise out of those areas made secure from the flood control system, agricultural land, and the proposed reclamation on the southern half of the municipality. With these areas, residential population could reach 800,000 (including 250,000 in Bonifacio Global City) by the year 2015. These numbers are derived by using World Bank planning standards. The scenario is dependent on the resolution of flooding and the development of adequate transportation systems. It is important that other areas of Taguig, develop land uses that compliment those in Bonifacio, thus knitting them together.
With a new C6 running parallel to the existing north-south Bagumbayan/Manuel Quezon road, the potentially valuable land adjacent to the lake will be eliminated. The Strategic Concept Plan recommends that some area (a strip of some 1000-1500m width) be reclaimed from the lake to alleviate this problem. Because this new area will benefit from both easy access (close proximity to C6) and lakefront views it will be extremely valuable, and an arrangement might be made to subsidize the development of the C6 with profits from the development of this new reclaimed land.
The areas of Taguig outside of Bonifacio Global City are poised to become a middle density of good living quality. The land use concept is to provide middle-class residential units, mixed with open space, retail, and community facilities in every Barangay. New communities will be developed within the network, and clustered around small local commercial areas.
COMMERCIAL and MIXED USE AREAS
Regional commercial development will be concentrated in the Old Taguig area and the existing FTI location, as well as a new waterfront oriented area. Anchored by municipal offices and historic buildings, Old Taguig should be developed as a mixed-use center with small-scale commercial, office, and residential spaces. At the northern edge of the new reclamation, a waterfront commercial area will take advantage of the Laguna de Bay setting. With a marina for small boats and a pedestrian boardwalk, this development area would be ideal for restaurants, shopping, and other commercial activities. Both Old Taguig and the New Marina should be developed with the intent of attracting tourism.
Given its setting, Taguig has the opportunity to create a metropolitan scale recreational center without national precedent. The area cast of the proposed C6/extended R4 interchange could serve some regional use, such as a sports center. This could include an arena or small stadium that would serve as a regional attraction. Near
this golf course could be integrated into both residential housing development and the canal and
open space network. In addition to these centers, the open-space canal network presents numerous recreational opportunities for both existing and new residents.
Major employment centers of light industry will be located along the South Super Highway to take advantage of the highway, the existing railway, and proximity to the airport. The area just south of the R4 extension could also serve as an R&D type lower density office area, taking advantage of easy connections to the Bonifacio Global City, and filling a market need not met by Bonifacio.
One tool cities to assist completing their plan is zoning overlays. The idea of a zoning overlay is fairly simple; additional layers of zoning restrictions are added to the basic permitted uses and densities in response to different situations within the same zoning district.
For example, the famous Mayo Clinic near Minneapolis is an immerse institutional campus in a relatively small town of about 50,000 population. The campus spans nearly 2 kilometers by one kilometer in extreme dimensions, with a spot density/floor area ratio of almost 14:1. The immediately adjacent downtown is developed to a density of less than 3:1. Because of the extreme differences of scale and activity between Mayo and the rest of the city, no single zoning ordinance could be applied universally. The solution was to device a zoning ordinance which provided a flat, permitted use for everyone, and then increased densities and uses for poverty owners who undertook to self-provide such features as centralized receiving, a comprehensive parking program, and integrated pedestrian movement through a system tunnels and skywalks. While this ordinance was written to accommodate Mayo, it applied to anyone who satisfied the code’s provisions.
A similar situation now exist in Taguig, where this is also a need to accommodate actual, existing conditions that frustrate typical ordinances. Specifically, the cooperation of landowners will be necessary to carry out a successful flood prevention strategy. Underlying a concern that it may be “too late” to undertake essential flood control are reports that land speculators are buying up large portions of Taguig. The presumption is that these speculators will be unwilling to cooperate with the city in undertaking flood control. Whether or not this is true, the city can develop an ordinance that provides a basic low-density residential permitted use for everyone. Overlays can be added that increase uses and/or densities for properties that do cooperate in the flood control efforts.
Development in Taguig will require a close partnership between public infrastructure and private entrepreneurship. While infrastructure can be seen as a framework for development, it is development that can provide impetus for infrastructure. The two must be implemented in conjunction. For example, a system of flood control is vial to encourage private development of new residential areas. These new communities can in turn become the catalyst for further road and sewer improvement.
Development in Taguig will have a national impact. The role it plays as a source for all Metro Manila is crucial for economic competitiveness. It serves also as an opportunity to demonstrate solutions that can be applied elsewhere in the Philippines. The Strategic Concept Plan suggest the physical nature solutions, but much more is required to put these plans into action Implementation of this plan will require coordination among various governmental agencies, and between local and federal governments. A clearly articulated Action Plan must be developed and sufficient funding allocated to realize its goals.
The Strategic Concept Plan should be understood as the first step in a comprehensive planning process. The approaches contained in The Strategic Concept Plan are very general in nature, and must be refined and revised as they move towards realization. The first step in implementing the Strategic Concept Plan will be to undertake more detailed examination of key areas. It is recommended that Flood Control be given the highest priority, and that a detailed study be undertaken, including plans for a complete flood control system.
It is also recommended that a full range of funding sources be explored and evaluated. These would include grants or loans from such as the Federal Government, the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank, U.S. Trade Development Agency, private foundations, or public-private partnerships. Given the wider regional implications surrounding Laguna de Bay of both flood control and transportation infrastructure, these projects would be attractive to such institutions.
Dynamic cities like Taguig often face new plans with ambivalence. On the one hand, there is excitement about the new direction –positive change –contained in the plan. On the other hand, there is regret that it is too late, that too much has already occurred in the area covered by the plan to ever fully achieve their goals. This is very common concern.
Some cities undertaking a new plan will take a view long view, reasoning that a city is forever, while individual properties change all of the time. Eventually, so this reasoning goes, the plan will be implemented. This approach works best in mature cities experiencing very little current growth, and which also have a very long “civic memory”.
Cities characterized by rapid change, like Taguig, cannot wait for generations to complete their plans. Time is not a luxury for them because they must be able to respond rapidly to ongoing transformation.
It must be emphasized that much of this plan is dependent on implementation of flood control measures, and cannot move forward without them.
There are a variety options at both a local and national level. Full government support should be given to making flood control the foremost priority. The C6 highway schedule also be pushed forward. Legislation that advances either of these projects would be a boon. Additionally, housing could become a focus of legislative action, particularly as Taguig has been designated as an official receiving points for new housing, and government support given to residential projects in those areas. This would likely involve a high degree of Federal-Local government cooperation.
SYMBOLS of CHANGE
It is important that residents of Taguig as those issues which are the highest priority (flood control, C6) will be implemented over a longer time period, it is also recommended that a smaller-scale high-visibility project be undertaken. One option for focus would be road from a C5 interchange near Bonifacio to the center ofTtaguig (Old Taguig). This would address one of the major traffic congestion areas and immediately begin to forgesties between the development of Bonifacio and the rest of the municipality.
Taguig faces demanding and complex problems. But it faces them armed with a strong vision and tremendous potential. The Strategic Concept Plan is the first step towards articulating that vision and realizing its potential. The plan provides the outlines of an imaginative, efficient, and integrated solution to flood control, transportation, housing, and infrastructure development.
With or without this plan. Taguig will undergo unparalleled change over the next decade. The people of Taguig must guide this change. This will take dedicated leadership, careful coordination and teamwork, and the support and energy of many people. Working with the spirit of community that inspired this plan, Taguig can create a truly superior public environment for the Filipino people.
One can imagine, on the year 2020, taking a ferry down one of the canals from the high-rises of Bonifacio, past historic Old Taguig, through neighborhoods and parks before coming to Laguna de Bay. And then, perhaps at sunset, one could slip out onto the lake, look back on the lights of the city, and marvel at all that has changed.
BONIFACIO GLOBAL CITY
EXPLORING DESIGN OPTION
Facts, when combined with ideas, constitute the greatest force in the world.
The design process began with several geometries and strategies for the site’s framework. Initial explorations included an organic framework, which would flow with the topography and create unique design responses to the land, but would also lead to less efficient land uses and a city which would lack “urbanity”.
A second design incorporated the grid pattern seen in most big cities, like New York. It made more efficient use of the land but had more intersections and created a static and boring city pattern.
A third exploration went in the direction of a geometric framework, like Paris, which creates focal elements throughout the site by using circular or octagonal patterns, giving the city a powerful image and identity. The drawback would be the problematic roadway system and inefficient use of land.
These initial explorations led to a design, which would synthesize the best elements of each pattern.
SITE CONTEXT DIAGRAM
The object of art is to crystallize emotion into thought, and then to fix in form.
Following the initial explorations, synthesis of the most attractive aspects of each pattern resulted in hybrid geometric and grid framework. The final framework is a combination of the practicality of a grid pattern, the clarity and beauty of a strong geometric core, and the use of organic forms at the edges of the site to transition to adjacent open spaces and effectively deal with the meandering property boundaries.
The underlying dimensional structure of Fort Bonifacio is a grid focused on the Central commons, with the East-West axis and Bonifacio Boulevard serving as the primary axes of the city. Overlaying this grid is the geometry of four (4) concentric circles and the singular organic form, which stretches from McKinley Road to the institutional area.
The three most important things in real state: location, location, location.
Fort Bonifacio is 440 contiguous hectares of land located in Metro Manila’s most strategic location. It is bordered by the country’s three(3) largest road arteries: the South Luzon Expressway, EDSA and C-5. It is destined to become the country’s primary business gateway, being just minutes away from the Ninoy Aquino International Airport. It is likewise less than 2 kilometers from Metro Manila’s other business centers, where the highest priced properties are located, as well as being adjacent to Forbes Park and Dasmariñas Village, the city’s most expensive residential districts.
Fort Bonifacio can also lay claim to having the best views in Metropolitan Manila. At surface, Fort Bonifacio is cradled by Manila Golf and the American Battle Memorial. At elevation, the city gives superb views of Laguna Lake, Manila Bay and its sunset , as well as the surrounding mountain ranges.
Land is not inherited from our forefathers;